Lung Cancer Symptom Scale
Name of Questionnaire
Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS)
The LCSS is designed as a disease- and site-specific measure of quality of life particularly for use in clinical trials. It evaluates six major symptoms associated with lung mallignancies and their effect on overal symptomatic distress, functional activities, and global quality of life. The philosophy behind the development of the LCSS is to provide a practical qualityo f life measure that reduced patient and staff burden in serial measurement of quality of life during the course of the trial. It captures in detail those dimensions most likely to be influenced by therapeutic interventions and evaluates other dimensions globally. It consists of two scales: one completed by the patient and an optional one for health care professionals ("counterpart observer") to provide context.
PJ Hollen, RJ Gralla, MG Kris
Patricia Hollen, PhD, RN
Cost & availability
Instrument is copyrighted and an agreement form must be signed for permission to use.
Face-to-face interview initially for demonstration of visual analogue scale (VAS) with a simple example question related to the weather, with telephone interview acceptable once patient is familiar with VAS 1 .
Time to complete
Patient scale: 8 minutes initially for demonstration of visual analogue scale, 3-5 minutes for subsequent demonstrations1
Observer scale: 2 minutes
Number of items
Patient scale: 9
Observer scale: 6
Domains & categories
Patient scale: 4
Observer scale: 1
Name of categories/domains
Patient scale: Symptoms, total symptomatic distress, activity status, overall quality of life
Observer scale: Symptoms
Scaling of items
Patient scale: 9 visual analogue scales (100 mm horizontal line). Patient puts a mark on line to indicate intensity of response to the items in question (0=lowest rating, 100=highest rating).
Observer scale: 5-point categorical scale (100=none, 75=mild, 50=moderate, 25=marked, 0=severe).
Patient scale: Scores equal length of line marked by patient. An aggregate score of all 9 items is used. In addition, a subscore using the mean of all 6 major symptoms ("average symptom burden index") and/or individual items to report specific areas of change can be used.
Observer scale: Score equals point value chosen by observer for each item. Aggregate score is used as well as average symptom burden index and/or individual items for specific areas of change.
Slopes for regression lines obtained between the Karnofsky Performance Scale and each of the LCSS scales were significantly different from zero 4 . Significant correlations between LCSS and KPS for each item except hemoptysis 4 . Good convergent validity for the patient and observer LCSS scales. Good discriminant validity pattern from the Brief Symptom Inventory. Significant correlations with the American Thoracic Society Questionnaire cough and breathlessness subscales, McGill Pain Questionnaire, KPS, Profile of Mood States, and Sickness Impact Profile 4 .
Minimally important difference
English, French, Spanish, Dutch/Flemish, Finnish, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, and others (26 total)
Normative data have been reported 7 . Contact developers for additional information regarding psychometric properties, languages available, and complete bibliography.
Date of information