Medical Outcomes Study SF-36
Name of Questionnaire
MOS 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (MOS SF-36)
Generic health-related quality of life measure. The instrument
is used widely to evaluate HRQL across various populations 4 .
AL Stewart, R Hays, JE Ware and RAND Corporation 2 .
- The Medical Outcomes Trust
20 Park Plaza Suite1014
Boston, MA 02116
Also available from the RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA
- Europe, Africa, Asia, Central & South America:
Mapi Research Institute
27 rue de la Villette
69003 Lyon, France
Cost & availability
Contact Medical Outcomes Trust or the RAND Corporation
Time to complete
Number of items
Domains & categories
Name of categories/domains
Physical functioning; role limitations due to physical health
problems; bodily pain; social functioning; general mental health;
role limitations due to emotional problems, vitality, energy or
fatigue; general health perceptions.
Scaling of items
Variable scaling for different questions including: Excellent,
very good, good , fair, poor; Limited a lot, limited a little, not
limited at all; Yes/no; Not at all, slightly, moderately, quite a
bit, extremely; None, very mild, mild, moderate, severe, very
severe; All of the time, most of the time, a good bit of the time,
some of the time, a little of the time, none of the time; and
8 domain scores and overall physical and mental health component
|b. Internal consistency
After adjusting for age, there were significant but weak
correlations between FEV1, % predicted and SF-36 subscales,
including physical functioning, physical role limitations, pain,
general health perceptions, and change in health 9 . Discriminant validity demonstrated
through differentiation between patients of 5 levels of asthma
severity 9 .
The acute version (1-week recall period) has also been used in
Original: English (US)
Translations: Dutch, Spanish8,
Swedish, French, German, Italian, Danish, Japanese
- Ware JE, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item
short form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item
selection. Med Care 1992;30:473-483.
- Stewart AL, Greenfield S, Hays RD, et
al. Functional status and well-being of patients with chronic
conditions. JAMA 1989;262:907-913.
- Tarlov AR, Ware JE Jr, Greenfield S,
Nelson EC, Perrin E, Zubkoff M. The Medical Outcomes Study: an
application of methods for monitoring the results of medical care.
- McHorney CA, Ware JE Jr Lu JFR, et al.
The MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36): III. Tests of
data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability across diverse
patient groups. Med Care 1994;32:40-66.
- Mahler DA, Faryniarz K, Tomlinson D,
Colice GL, Robins AG, Olmstead EM, O'Connor GT. Impact of dyspnea
and physiologic function on general health status in patients with
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest 1992;102:395-401.
- Blumenschein K, Johannesson M.
Relationship between quality of life instruments, health state
utilities, and willingness to pay in patients with asthma. Ann
Allergy Asthm Immunol 1998;80:189-94.
- Ware JE Jr, Kemp JP, Buchner DA, Singer
AE, Nolop KB, Gross TF. The responsiveness of disease-specific and
generic health measures to changes in the severity of asthma among
adults. Qual Life Res 1998;7:235-44.
- Alonso J, Prieto L, Ferrer M, Vilagut G,
Broquetas JM, Roca J, Batlle JS, Anto JM for the Quality of Life in
COPD Study Group. J Clin Epidemiol 1998;51(11):1087-94.
- Bousquet J, Knani J, Dhivert H, RIchard
A, Chicoye A, Ware Je Jr, Michel F-B. Quality of life in asthma. I.
Internal consistency and validity of the SF-36 questionaire. Am J
Respir Crit Care Med 1994;149:371-5.
- Ware JE, Sherbourne CD. The MOS
36-item short form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework
and item selection. Med Care 1992;30:473-483.
Date of information