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Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire

Name of Questionnaire

Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire


Patient self-assessment of how heart failure affects his or her daily life


Thomas Rector Ph.D.


Cost & availability

License Agreement and fee required by Univerisy of Minnesota. Contact for more information



Time to complete

Long: 5-10 minutes

Number of items


Domains & categories (#)

Content reflects most frequent and important ways heart failure affects patients' lives. Overall score with 2 (physical and emotional) dimensions designed to describe two important aspects to quality of life

Scaling of items

All items same 0 to 5 Likert scale


Sum of item responses for total and dimension scores


  • Test-retest/reproducibility: r = 0.871,2
  • Internal consistency: Chronbach's alpha for all items = 0.921,3,4


Content: Reported 5
Conruct: Correlates with other measures according to degree of conceptual overlap.3,4,6,7 See Overview at for more information

Minimally important difference

5 points on total score. 8 Estimated standard error of the measure is 6-7 points. See Overview at for more information about interpreting scores.


Randomized controlled trials have detected significant effects of ACE inhibitors, positive inotropic agents, cardiac resynchronization, exercise training and disease management programs. See Overview at for more information and references.

Research use

Used in numerous clinical trials and evaluations. See Overview at


Original English (US), translated into over 30 languages. See
Reading Level: Not reported


  1. Rector TS, Cohn JN. Assessment of Patient Outcome with the Minnesota Living with Heart failure Questionnaire: Reliability and validity during a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pimobendan. Am Heart J. 1992;124:1017-1025.
  2. Rector TS, Johnson G, Dunkman WB, Daniels G, Farrell L, Henrick A, Smith B, Cohn JN. For the V-HeFT Cooperative Studies Group: Evaluation by patients with heart failure of the effects of enalapril compared with hydralazine plus isosorbide dinitrate on qulaity of life, V-HeFT II. Circulation. 1993;87:VI-71 - VI-77.
  3. Bennett SJ, Oldridge NB, Eckert GJ, Embree JL, Browning S, Hou N, Deer M, Murray MD. Discriminant properties of commonly used quality of life measures in heart failure. Quality of Life Res. 2002;11:349-359.
  4. Gorkin L, Norvell NK, Rosen RC, Charles E, Schumaker SA, McIntyre KM, Capone RJ, Kostis J, Niaura R, Woods P, Hosking J, Garces C, Handberg E, Ahern DK, Follick MJ. For the SOLVD Investigators. Assessment of quality of life as observed from the baseline data of the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) trial quality-of-life substudy. Am J Cardiol. 1993;71:1069-1073.
  5. Rector TS, Kubo SH, Cohn JN. Patients' self-assessment of their congestive heart failure. Part 2: Content, reliability and validity of a new measure, the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire. Heart Failure. 1987;Oct/Nov:198-209.
  6. Ni H, Toy W, Burgess D, Wise K, Nauman D, Crispell K, Hershberger R. Comparative responsiveness of short-form 12 and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire in patients with heart failure. Journal of Cardiac Failure 2000;6(2):83-91.
  7. Demers C, McKelvie RS, Negassa A, Yusuf S. for the RESOLVD Pilot Study Investigators. Reliability, validity and responsiveness of the six-minute walk test in patients with heart failure. Am Heart J. 2001;142:698-703.
  8. Rector TS, Tschumperlin LK, Kubo SH, Bank AJ, Francis GS, McDonald KM, Keeler CA, Silver MA. Use of the Lving with Heart Failure questionnaire to ascertain patients' perspectives on improvement in quality of life versus risk of drug-induced death. J Cardiac Failure. 1995;1:201-206.

Date of information

July 2004

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