ATS American Thoracic Society
Recent Abstracts

Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System

Name of Questionnaire

Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System (CARES)


Cancer-specific quality of life instrument. Patients rate cancer-related problems encountered on a daily basis. Clinical and research versions. A shortened version of the instrument (CARES-Short Form) has also been developed.


CARES Consultants: A Coscarelli, RL Heinrich, PA Ganz, RL Aadland


Anne Coscarelli
CARES Consultants
2210 Wilshire Blvd
Suite 359
Santa Monica, California 90403


Not available.


Not available.

Cost & availability

Available for purchase at above address



Time to complete

Average: 20 minutes (range: 10 to 34 minutes)

Number of items

139 (88 for all patients, 51 for patients in specific situations)

Domains & categories (#)

5 summary scales for broader scoring, 31 subscales for detailed scoring

Name of categories/domains

For broader scoring: physical, psychosocial, marital, medical interaction, sexual

Scaling of items

Five-point severity rating scale: 0 is "Not At All" (no problem), 4 is "Very Much" (severe problem).


Detailed, broad, and/or overall scale score


a. Test-retest/
Reported 1 2
b. Internal consistency: Reported2


Reported to be comprehensive and shown to include problems experienced by cancer patients1 2. Reported to measure what it purports to measure3. Correlated as expected with Symptom Checklist-90, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Karnofsky Performance Status, a visual analog scale, and Functional Living Index – Cancer1 2.


Reported in breast cancer patients4

Minimally important difference

Not determined

Research Use

Reported – functional status in women with lung cancer (used only physical function subscale of CARES-SF)5, quality of life in cancer survivors6.

Clinical Use

Not reported. However, a clinical version of the instrument that allows respondents to indicate "Yes" or "No" for whether they would like help with each problem is available.


Original: English (US)


During the early phases of its development, CARES was called the Cancer Inventory of Problem Situations (CIPS)1 3.


    1. Heinrich RL, Schag CC, Ganz PA. Living with cancer: the cancer inventory of problem situations. J Clin Psych 1984; 40:972-80.
    2. Schag CA, Heinrich RL, Aadland RL. Assessing problems of cancer patients: psychometric properties of the Cancer Inventory of Problem Situations. Health Psych 1990; 9:83-102.
    3. Schag CA, Heinrich RL. Development of a comprehensive quality of life measurement tool: CARES. Oncology (Huntingt) 1990; 4:135-8; discussion 147; appendix 209-215.
    4. Ganz PA, Schag CA, Lee JJ, Sim M-S. The CARES: a generic measure of health-related quality of life for patients with cancer. Qual Life Res 1992; 1:19-29.
    5. Sarna L. Functional status in women with lung cancer. Cancer Nurs 1994; 17:87-93.
    6. Schag CA, Ganz PA, Wing DS, Sim M-S, Lee JJ. Quality of life in adult survivors of lung, colon, and prostate cancer. Qual Life Res 1994; 3:127-41.

      Date of information

      July 2000

Copyright © 2007 American Thoracic Society · Web Site Requirements
Questions or comments? Contact Us.