Name of Questionnaire
The KINDL is a generic instrument of quality of life designed for children 8-16 years of age.
U Ravens-Sieberer, M Bullinger
Cost & availability
Contact U Ravens-Sieberer for permission and information.
Time to complete
Number of items
Domains & categories
Name of categories/domains
Mental (11 items), physical (9 items), everyday life (11 items), social life (9 items)
Scaling of items
5-point Likert scales
Scores for each item range from 1-5. The total score is the sum of all item scores, transformed to a 0-100 scale. Higher scores indicate better quality of life.
Concurrent validity was demonstrated through moderate to strong, significant correlations between KINDL scales and SF-36 subscales: KINDL total score with general health; KINDL total score with mental health; KINDL total score with vitality. The mental, physical, everyday life, and social life KINDL scales were also moderately to strongly correlated with the SF-36 mental health and vitality subscales and the mental, physical and everyday life KINDL scales were moderately correlated with the SF-36 general health subscale. There were also strong relationships between the KINDL (total score and each scale) and the FLZ, a life satisfaction measure. There were also strong and significant correlations between KINDL scores and social support and stress level. Healthy lifestyle (less smoking and unhealthy food and more sports activity) was also a significant predictor of quality of life1.
Minimally important difference
Date of information
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