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Recent Abstracts


Name of Questionnaire

Quality of Life - Cancer Survivors (QOL-CS)


Quality of Life instrument designed to measure factors concerning long-term cancer survivors.


Modeled after instruments developed at the City of Hope National Medical Center (M. Grant, G. Padilla, and B. Ferrell), modified by Betty R. Ferrell, PhD, RN, FAAN and Karen Hassey Dow, PhD, RN, FAAN.


Betty R. Ferrell, PhD, RN, FAAN
City of Hope National Medical Center
Department of Nursing Research and Education
1500 East Duarte Road
Duarte, CA 91010
Tel: 626-301-8111 x 62825
Fax: 626-301-8941




Number of items

41 total (18 psychological, 8 physical, 8 social, 7 spiritual)

Domains & categories


Name of categories/domains

Psychological well-being, physical well-being, social well-being, and spiritual well-being

Scaling of items

11-point scale from 0 (worst outcome) to 10 (best outcome)


Scores for each of the 41 items are averaged to obtain total score. The average score for each of the subscales may also be reported.


a. Test-Retest/Reproducibility Reported: Overall r=0.89, subscale scores: psychological r=0.88, physical r=0.88, social r=0.81, spiritual r=0.90
b. Internal Consistency Reported: Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Overall score r=0.93. Subscale alpha scores: psychological r=0.89, physical r=0.77, social r=0.81, spiritual r=0.71


  1. Content validity verified by literature review, clinical experience, and an "initial pilot testing based on a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with five long-term cancer survivors". A panel of experts also reviewed the tool for content and clarity.
  2. Predictive validity was measured using step-wise multiple regression to determine factors most predictive of overall quality of life among cancer survivors. 14 variables accounted for 91% of the variance in overall QOL (primarily control, aches and pain, uncertainty, satisfaction, future, appearance and fatigue).
  3. Concurrent validity tested by Pearson's correlation coefficient, compared to the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G), with moderate to strong correlations between associated subscales: QOL-CS physical to FACT physical (r=0.74), QOL-CS psychological to FACT emotional (r=0.65), QOL-CS social to FACT social (r=0.44), Overall r=0.78.
  4. Concurrent validity also tested by Pearson's correlation coefficient applied to individual items of the tool.
  5. Construct validity measured by principal components factor analysis.
  6. Construct validity measured by comparing the known contrasting groups to determine if the QOL-CS discriminates among groups based on disease stage, living arrangements, gender, time since initial diagnosis, and income.


Not reported.

Minimally important difference

Not reported

Research use


1. Sarna L, Padilla G, Holmes C, Tashkin D, Brecht ML, Evangelista L. Quality of life of long-term survivors of non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Jul 1;20(13):2920-9.

Clinical use

Not reported


English (no other languages reported)


  1. Ferrell BR, Hassey Dow K. Quality of life among long-term cancer survivors. Oncology (Huntingt). 1997 Apr;11(4):565-8, 571; discussion 572, 575-6. Review.
  2. Ferrell BR, Hassey Dow K, Grant M. Measurement of the quality of life in cancer survivors. Quality of Life Research. 1995;4: 523-531.
  3. Ferrell BR, Hassey Dow K, Leigh S, Ly J, Gulasekaram P. Quality of Life in Long-Term Cancer Survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum. 1995 Nov; 22(6): 915-922.

Date of information

April 2003

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